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The Oromo people pron. They are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and represent The word Oromo appeared in European literature for the first time in and slowly became common in the second half of the 20th century. Some Oromo people still follow their traditional religion, Waaqeffanna and they used the gadaa system of governance. The origins and prehistory of the Oromo people prior to the 16th century are based on Oromo oral tradition.
Fra Mauro's term Kush is the most used term, however, until the early 20th century. The Oromo never called themselves "Galla" and resist its use because the term is considered derogatory. After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region including the Oromo, particularly mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion, primarily by European explorers, Catholic Christians missionaries.
The Oromo are mentioned as the Galla in several Maps and Historical events. One mention of the Oromo before the Oromo expansionwas when the Oromo led a campaign against the Sultanate of Ifat the campaigned being named Meeshii Dir Dhabe. The Oromo led a expedition against the Cisee Dir clan who inhabited the great city.
The Cisse clan would be victorious ending the campaign. One inscription of the Oromo from the 14th century notes that the Oromo were inhabiting Ethiopia much before the Oromo migration and founded several Civilisations many of which Wej, Bale, Arsi, Dawaro, as well as others. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people probably originated around the lakes Lake Chew Bahir and Lake Chamo.
The aftermath of the sixteenth century Ethiopian—Adal war led to Oromos to move to the north. Historically, Afaan Oromo-speaking people used their own Gadaa system of governance. Oromos also had a number of independent kingdoms, which they shared with the Sidama people. The earliest known documented and detailed history of the Oromo people was by the Ethiopian monk Abba Bahrey who wrote Zenahu le Galla inthough the synonymous term Gallas was mentioned in maps  or elsewhere much earlier.
These records suggest that the Oromo were pastoral people in their history, who stayed together. Their animal herds began to expand rapidly and they needed more grazing lands. They began migrating, not together, but after separating. They lacked kings, and had elected leaders called luba based on a gada system of government instead.
By the late 16th century, two major Oromo confederations emerged: Afre and Sadaqawhich respectively refer to four and three in their language, with Afre emerging from four older clans, and Sadaqa out of three. According to Richard Pankhurstan Ethiopia historian, this migration is linked to the first incursions into inland Horn of Africa by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim.
Further, they acquired horses and their gada system helped coordinate well equipped Oromo warriors who enabled fellow Oromos to advance and settle into newer regions starting in the s. This expansion continued through the 17th century. Both peaceful integration and violent competition between Oromos and other neighboring ethnicities such as the AmharaSidamaAfar and the Somali affected politics the Oromo community.
This caused a major redistribution of populations. The northern, eastern and western movement of the Oromos from the south around mirrored the large-scale expansion by Somalis inland. The — period also saw relocation of the Amhara peopleand helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.
According to oral and literary evidence, Borana Oromo clan and Garre Somali clan mutually victimized each other in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly near their eastern borders. There were also periods of relative peace. The Borana violence against their neighbors, states Schlee, was unusual and unlike their behavior inside their community where violence was considered deviant.
The Oromos are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia They speak Afaan Oromoothe official language of Oromia. There are also Oromo in the former Wollo and Tigray provinces of Ethiopia. The Oromo are consists two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east. The Borana Oromoalso called the Booranaaare a semi- pastoralist group living in southern Oromia and northern Kenya.
The Oromo language. Oromo ,is written with Latin characters known as Qubee. It is used as an internet language for federal websites along with Tigrinya. Besides first language speakers, a number of members of other ethnicities who are in contact with the Oromo speak it as a second language.
The Oromo followed their traditional religion Waaqeffanna and resistant to religious conversion before assimilation in sultanates and Christian kingdoms. The religious beliefs of the Oromo people evolved in this socio-political environment. In the late 19th century, Orthodox was endorsed by the state.
Tewodros and Yohannes were known for their intolerance towards other religions. The religion hostile to that of Amhara race who lorded over them helped the expansion of Islam. The first to accept Islam as a resisistance ideology were the Wollo Oromo. In the Ethiopian census for Oromia region, which included both Oromo and non-Oromo residents, there was a total of 13, followers of Christianity 8, Orthodox, 4, Protestant,Catholic12, followers of Islam, followers of traditional religionsandfollowers of other religions.
Accordingly, the Oromia region is According to a estimate by James Minahan, about half of the Oromo people are Sunni Muslim, a third are Ethiopian Orthodox, and the rest are mostly Protestants or follow their traditional religious beliefs. The Oromos' cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées. Oromo people governed themselves in accordance with Gadaa system long before the 16th century.
The system regulates political, economic, social and religious activities of the community. Gadaa Council is considered as it is the collective achievements the members of the Gadaa class. It is responsible in coordinating irreecha. Gadaa General Assembly is the legislative body of the Gadaa government, while Qallu Assembly is the religious institution.
The Oromo people developed a luni-solar calendar, which different geographically and religiously distinct Oromo communities use the same calendar. This calendar is sophisticated and similar to ones found among the Chinese, the Hindus and the Mayans.
It was tied to the traditional religion of the Oromos, and used to schedule the Gadda system of elections and power transfer. The Borana Oromo calendar system was once thought to be based upon an earlier Cushitic calendar developed around BC found at Namoratunga. Reconsideration of the Namoratunga site led astronomer and archaeologist Clive Ruggles to conclude that there is no relationship. It is a lunar-stellar calendar system. Some modern authors such as Gemetchu Megerssa have proposed the concept of Oromummaor "Oromoness" as a cultural common between Oromo people.
The Oromo people, depending on their geographical location and historical events, have variously converted to Islam, to Christianity, or remained with their traditional religion Waaqeffanna. According to Gemetchu Megerssa, the subjective reality is that "neither traditional Oromo rituals nor traditional Oromo beliefs function any longer as a cohesive and integral symbol system" for the Oromo people, not just regionally but even locally.
Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Boranabelow them were the Gabbaro some 17th to 19th-century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta. Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.
In the Islamic Kingdom of Jimmathe Oromo society's caste strata predominantly consisted of endogamous, inherited artisanal occupations. Each caste in the Oromo society had a designated name. For example, Tumtu were smiths, Fuga were potters, Faqi were tanners and leatherworkers, Semmano were weavers, Gagurtu were bee keepers and honey makers, and Watta were hunters and foragers.
By the 19th century, Oromo slaves were sought after and a major part of slaves sold in Gondar and Gallabat slave markets at Ethiopia-Sudan border, as well as the Massawa and Tajura markets on the Red Sea. The Oromo people are engaged in many occupations. The southern Oromo specifically the Borana Oromo are largely pastoralists who raise goats and cattle. Other Oromo groups have a more diverse economy which includes agriculture and work in urban centers.
Some Oromo also sell many products and food items like coffee beans coffee being a favorite beverage among the Oromo at local markets. Starting in Novemberduring a wave of mass protests, mainly by Oromos, over the expansion of the municipal boundary of the Addis Ababa into Oromia, over people have been killed and many more have been injured, according to human-rights advocates and independent monitors.
With the rising political unrest, there was ethnic violence involving the Oromo such as the Oromo—Somali clashes between the Oromo and the ethnic Somalisleading to up toto be displaced in Protests broke out across Ethiopia, chiefly in the Oromia Region, following the assassination of musician Hachalu Hundessa on 29 Juneleading to the deaths of at least people. The resettlements Oromo was affected Abyssinian state Subsequently, the Oromo played a major role in the internal dynamics of Ethiopia.
In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in the Tigray regional state played a major role in the "Weyane" revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I 's rule in the s. At present a number of ethnic-based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association founded in Januarybut disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November A number of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force.
Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in the ethnic federalism. But most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country.
Progress has been very slow, with the Oromia International Bank just recently established inthough Oromo-owned Awash International Bank started early in the s. Radio broadcasts began in Oromo language in Somalia in by Radio Mogadishu. Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades.
InOFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia. These include thousands of peaceful protestors and hundreds of opposition political party members. The government anticipates a high level of opposition in Oromia, and signs of dissent are sought out and regularly, sometimes pre-emptively, suppressed.
In numerous cases, actual or suspected dissenters have been detained without charge or trial, killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention. According to Amnesty International, there is a sweeping repression in the Oromo region of Ethiopia.
According to the report, the students were protesting against the government's re-zoning plan named 'Addis Ababa Master Plan'. On 2 Octoberbetween 55 and festival goers were massacred at the most sacred and largest event among the Oromo, the Irreecha cultural thanksgiving festival. Every year, millions of Oromos, the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, gather in Bishoftu for this annual celebration.
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